GeneticInheritance

Margaret E. Vorndam,

M.S.Version 42-0061-00-01

LAB REPORTASSISTANT

.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif”>Thisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstitute

for

aformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperimentsquestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables

that

shouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport.

Theintentistofacilitatestudentswriting

oflab reports by providing

this informationin an editable

filewhich can be sent to an instructor.

Data Table

1: PunnettSquare for F1 Cross Expected GeneticOutcomes

F1Parent, genes:

(student to

fillin the blanks)

alleles >

alleles v

F1 Parent, g

enes:

__________(student fill

in blank)

Data Table

2: Results of F1 Cross

Observed Phenotypes of F2Progeny

# green plants =

# white plants

=

Total # plants

Petri Dish 1 >

Petri Dish 2 >

Total

.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.gif”>.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.gif”>.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.gif”>

Data

Table 3: Dihybrid Cross in Corn

Results of P Cross

P = purple,

p = yellow

S = smooth, s =

wrinkled

(student

to fillin all blanks )

Generation

Expected Alleles

Expected Alleles

P >

dominant x recessive

_ppss_

F1Progeny >

Frequency >

Data

Table 3A: PunnettSquare for

F1 Dihybrid Cross

Expected Genotypic Outcomes

(student

to fillin)

Parent

1 F1 can produce

these gametes: (student to

fillin)

Parent2F1 canproduce

these gametes:

>

ShadedportionaboverepresentstheF2progeny

genotype and phenotype.Student

to fillin.

.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image004.gif”>

Data

Table 4: Dihybrid Cross in Corn

Results of F1 Cross in F2 Progeny

Phenotype of

Progeny

(What they look like word description)

Genetic Designations possible for this Phenotype

e.g., PPSS

Predicted Allelic

Frequency

(Expected Ratio)

Number of this Phenotype Total Counted:

100 (Observed

Number)

Actual Allelic

Frequency

(Observed

Ratio)*

e.g., Yellow, wrinkled

ppss

* Actual

Allelic Frequency (Observed Ratio)

= Number of this PhenotypeTotal

Counted 100 kernels total counted

Data Table 5: 2Goodness of Fit Test

for F Phenotypic Results from F Corn Cross

2 1

Phenotype

Description

of

F2Progeny from

Table 4

Observed

Number from Table 4

Observed

Ratio from Table 4

Expected Ratio from

Table 4

* Expected Number, calculated

** [Observed

No. Exp. No.]2

Expected No.

e.g., Yellow, wrinkled

Sum of column =

c2,Chi-square value

***

>

* Expected

Number, calculated

= Sum of Observed

Number x Expected Ratiofor that

phenotype

** = (Observed

number Expected number, calculated)

square

Expected

Number, calculated

*** c2,Chi-squarevalue=Sumof(ObservednumberExpectednumber,calculated)

squared Expected

Number, calculated

Data Table 6: Summarizationofc2 Good Fit Results

for F Corn Cross

1

c2 value from Table

5 =

Value at 3 Degrees of Freedom that is closest to

c2

value =

What is the Fit Probability at the top of the column in which the value was

found?

What is the % of probability that the observed

results match the expected

results?

(MultiplyFit Probability

by 100)

Reading at the top

of the Table, this Fit Probability indicates that the expected results

hypothesis is a

Good Fit Poor Fit

Circle the correct choice above

Exercise

1: F1 Hybrid Cross

A. Expectedphenotypicratioofgreentowhiteprogeny: CalculationofExpectedRatio

(Frequency) = = Total Number of (Color) Seedlings Total

of All Seedlings.

B. If 320 F2offspring

resulted from this F1cross, how

many would be green?

White?

DISCUSSION

A. Did the results support or refute

the hypothesis? Explain.

B. How

similar are the observed to

the expected results from the PunnettSquare?

C. If the results are not

similar, how might the differencebe explained?

D. WillamonohybridF1crossincornyieldthesameratioofexpectedphenotype

inprogenyas

for the tobacco seedlings? Why or why

not?

E. Ifavailable,

compareyourF2seedlingdatatothoseofyourclassmates.Aretheoutcomeratios the same? Why might using a larger

number of seedlings to determine

this outcome be wise?

Exercise

2: Dihybrid GeneticCrosses

PROCEDURE

1. Basedonwhatyoucanconcludeaboutitsgeneticmakeupwhentoldthatthecornplant parentcross(P)picturedinFigure2isbetweenacompletelydominantplantandacompletely recessive plant,

a. Constructandrecordahypothesisaboutwhatthegeneticmakeupandthefrequencies oftheallelesfortheF1 progenyplantsinthedihybridcrossofcornwillbe.Recordyour

hypothesis here:

b. IftheseF1 progenyaremated,whatwillbetheresultingallelic

frequencyfortheF2

progeny? Record

this hypothesis here:

RESULTS

A. Whatarethetwohypotheses

thatyoumadeabouttheallelicfrequenciesofprogenyproduced by

the crosses:

P x P?

F1x F1?

B. Based

on

what you

know about phenotypes and Figure 2, for

the

P

generation, what is

the

corn plant genotype on

each

cob containing the

P

corn kernels?

One is completely dominant, so its genotype is

One

is completely recessive,

so its genotype is .

C. WoulditmakeadifferenceintheoutcomeofthiscrossifthegenotypeofoneparentisPPss and the other is ppSS?

D. Fromthephenotype

ofthekernelsoneachPgeneration cobwhatwouldthepredicted

genotype of any F1plant

be?

E. Giventhe2nequationpredicthowmanydifferentgeneticoutcomeswillbepossiblefroman

F1cross

resultingin the F2generationin

a dihybrid corn cross.

F. IfaF2corncobresulting

fromthisF1crosscontained

563seeds,howmanyoftheseeds

would you expect to look like

the F1parent?

QUESTIONS

A. How

well do the predicted results match the actual results in Table 4?

B. Based

onthePunnettSquarepredictions,canastatementbemadeastowhetheryour hypotheses

are supported or rejected? Which and why?

C. DihybridF1 crossesresultinapredictableF2 progenyphenotypicfrequencythatholdstrue

universally. Based on the

Expected outcome, what is it?

D. If your

results are not as expected why

might there be differences?

E. Whatapplicationsmightthistypeofgeneticinvestigationhave?Howmighttheinformation

be applied medically?

Exercise

3: Chi-square and Hypothesis Testing

QUESTIONS

A. Whatcanbeconcluded

aboutyourprediction

ofexpectedF2 progenyphenotypicoutcome from

the F1cross? Was it close to the observed

outcome?

1

B. Howmightthec2testforfitnessbeusedinotherways?TryitonthetobaccoseedlingF

cross, for

instance.

C. Inatypicalcrosswhereaparentwithacompletelydominanttraitismatedwithaparent

exhibiting acompletelyrecessivetrait,whatistheexpectedgenotypicoutcomeandallelic frequency

for the F1progeny?

Give an example.

D. InatypicalcrosswherehybridF1parentsaremated,whatistheexpectedgenotypicoutcome and allelic frequency of the F2progeny?

Give an example.

E. FortheF2 progenyproducedfromatypicalF1 hybridmating,howmanytotallyrecessive individuals would be produced if

the progeny total

populationis six offspring?

What if the progeny populationwas

20?

50?

1,000?

F. Excluding

factorssuchassex-linkedgenes,incompletedominance

orepistasis,etc.,willthe above cross

results vary if differentorganisms

are used, such as dogs or tulips? Why or why

not?

G.

Howwillfactorssuchassex-linked genes,incompletedominance,orepistasis,

etc.,affectthe

expected outcomes that

were

investigatedabove?GeneticInheritanceMargaret E. Vorndam,

M.S.Version 42-0061-00-01LAB REPORTASSISTANT

.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif”>Thisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstitute

for

aformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperimentsquestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables

that

shouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport.

Theintentistofacilitatestudentswriting

oflab reports by providing

this informationin an editable

filewhich can be sent to an instructor.Data Table

1: PunnettSquare for F1 Cross Expected GeneticOutcomesF1Parent, genes:

(student to

fillin the blanks)alleles >alleles vF1 Parent, g

enes:

__________(student fill

in blank)Data Table

2: Results of F1 CrossObserved Phenotypes of F2Progeny# green plants =# white plants

=Total # plantsPetri Dish 1 >Petri Dish 2 >Total.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.gif”>.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.gif”>.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image003.gif”>Data

Table 3: Dihybrid Cross in Corn

Results of P CrossP = purple,

p = yellowS = smooth, s =

wrinkled(student

to fillin all blanks )GenerationExpected AllelesExpected AllelesP >dominant x recessive_ppss_F1Progeny >Frequency >Data

Table 3A: PunnettSquare for

F1 Dihybrid CrossExpected Genotypic Outcomes(student

to fillin)Parent

1 F1 can produce

these gametes: (student to

fillin)Parent2F1 canproduce

these gametes: >ShadedportionaboverepresentstheF2progenygenotype and phenotype.Student

to fillin..0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image004.gif”>Data

Table 4: Dihybrid Cross in Corn

Results of F1 Cross in F2 ProgenyPhenotype ofProgeny(What they look like word description)Genetic Designations possible for this Phenotypee.g., PPSSPredicted AllelicFrequency(Expected Ratio)Number of this Phenotype Total Counted:100 (Observed

Number)Actual AllelicFrequency(ObservedRatio)*e.g., Yellow, wrinkledppss* Actual

Allelic Frequency (Observed Ratio)= Number of this PhenotypeTotal

Counted 100 kernels total countedData Table 5: 2Goodness of Fit Test

for F Phenotypic Results from F Corn Cross2 1PhenotypeDescriptionof

F2Progeny from

Table 4Observed

Number from Table 4Observed

Ratio from Table 4Expected Ratio from

Table 4* Expected Number, calculated** [Observed

No. Exp. No.]2 Expected No.e.g., Yellow, wrinkled Sum of column =c2,Chi-square value

***>* Expected

Number, calculated= Sum of Observed

Number x Expected Ratiofor that

phenotype** = (Observed

number Expected number, calculated)

square Expected

Number, calculated*** c2,Chi-squarevalue=Sumof(ObservednumberExpectednumber,calculated)squared Expected

Number, calculatedData Table 6: Summarizationofc2 Good Fit Results

for F Corn Cross1c2 value from Table

5 =Value at 3 Degrees of Freedom that is closest to

c2value =What is the Fit Probability at the top of the column in which the value was

found?What is the % of probability that the observed

results match the expected

results?(MultiplyFit Probability

by 100)Reading at the top

of the Table, this Fit Probability indicates that the expected results

hypothesis is aGood Fit Poor FitCircle the correct choice aboveExercise

1: F1 Hybrid CrossA. Expectedphenotypicratioofgreentowhiteprogeny: CalculationofExpectedRatio(Frequency) = = Total Number of (Color) Seedlings Total

of All Seedlings.B. If 320 F2offspring

resulted from this F1cross, how

many would be green?White?DISCUSSION A. Did the results support or refute

the hypothesis? Explain.B. How

similar are the observed to

the expected results from the PunnettSquare?C. If the results are not

similar, how might the differencebe explained?D. WillamonohybridF1crossincornyieldthesameratioofexpectedphenotype

inprogenyas

for the tobacco seedlings? Why or why

not?E. Ifavailable,

compareyourF2seedlingdatatothoseofyourclassmates.Aretheoutcomeratios the same? Why might using a larger

number of seedlings to determine

this outcome be wise?Exercise

2: Dihybrid GeneticCrossesPROCEDURE 1. Basedonwhatyoucanconcludeaboutitsgeneticmakeupwhentoldthatthecornplant parentcross(P)picturedinFigure2isbetweenacompletelydominantplantandacompletely recessive plant,a. Constructandrecordahypothesisaboutwhatthegeneticmakeupandthefrequencies oftheallelesfortheF1 progenyplantsinthedihybridcrossofcornwillbe.Recordyour

hypothesis here:b. IftheseF1 progenyaremated,whatwillbetheresultingallelic

frequencyfortheF2progeny? Record

this hypothesis here:RESULTS A. Whatarethetwohypotheses

thatyoumadeabouttheallelicfrequenciesofprogenyproduced by

the crosses:P x P?F1x F1?B. Based

on

what you

know about phenotypes and Figure 2, for

the

P

generation, what is

the

corn plant genotype on

each

cob containing the

P

corn kernels?

One is completely dominant, so its genotype is One

is completely recessive,

so its genotype is .C. WoulditmakeadifferenceintheoutcomeofthiscrossifthegenotypeofoneparentisPPss and the other is ppSS?D. Fromthephenotype

ofthekernelsoneachPgeneration cobwhatwouldthepredicted

genotype of any F1plant

be?E. Giventhe2nequationpredicthowmanydifferentgeneticoutcomeswillbepossiblefromanF1cross

resultingin the F2generationin

a dihybrid corn cross.F. IfaF2corncobresulting

fromthisF1crosscontained

563seeds,howmanyoftheseeds

would you expect to look like

the F1parent?QUESTIONS A. How

well do the predicted results match the actual results in Table 4?B. Based

onthePunnettSquarepredictions,canastatementbemadeastowhetheryour hypotheses

are supported or rejected? Which and why?C. DihybridF1 crossesresultinapredictableF2 progenyphenotypicfrequencythatholdstrue

universally. Based on the

Expected outcome, what is it?D. If your

results are not as expected why

might there be differences?E. Whatapplicationsmightthistypeofgeneticinvestigationhave?Howmighttheinformation

be applied medically?Exercise

3: Chi-square and Hypothesis TestingQUESTIONS A. Whatcanbeconcluded

aboutyourprediction

ofexpectedF2 progenyphenotypicoutcome from

the F1cross? Was it close to the observed

outcome?

1cross, for

instance.C. Inatypicalcrosswhereaparentwithacompletelydominanttraitismatedwithaparent

exhibiting acompletelyrecessivetrait,whatistheexpectedgenotypicoutcomeandallelic frequency

for the F1progeny?Give an example.D. InatypicalcrosswherehybridF1parentsaremated,whatistheexpectedgenotypicoutcome and allelic frequency of the F2progeny?Give an example.E. FortheF2 progenyproducedfromatypicalF1 hybridmating,howmanytotallyrecessive individuals would be produced if

the progeny total

populationis six offspring?What if the progeny populationwas

20?50?1,000?F. Excluding

factorssuchassex-linkedgenes,incompletedominance

orepistasis,etc.,willthe above cross

results vary if differentorganisms

are used, such as dogs or tulips? Why or why

not?G.

Howwillfactorssuchassex-linked genes,incompletedominance,orepistasis,

etc.,affectthe

expected outcomes that

were

investigatedabove?