BAM 410 Organizational Theory and Behavior Multiple Choice Questions(Enter

BAM 410 Organizational Theory and Behavior Multiple Choice Questions(Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1. According to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles, the role of a(n) ________ is to transmit information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization. a. leader b. disseminator c. resource allocator d. entrepreneur e. spokesperson 2. According to Mintzberg’s classification of managerial roles, which of the following is a kind of decisional role? a. liaison b. disseminator c. negotiator d. monitor e. spokesperson 3. In order to predict human behavior, it is best to supplement intuitive opinions with information derived from ________. a. systematic study b. speculation c. organizational theory d. direct observation e. common sense 4. Myriam is analyzing the gender roles of men and women in management in the United States and comparing them to the gender roles in management in Japan. She is surveying fifty male and fifty female managers in each country to compare their daily behavior. Myriam’s study exemplifies how ________ contributes to OB. a. anthropology b. psychology c. corporate strategy d. political science e. archaeology 5. _________ helped Amazon revolutionize the bookselling industry. a. Luthan’s findings on management behavior b. The availability of Big Data c. Mintzberg’s Theory of Management d. Intuition e. Evidence-based management 6. Which of the following is true regarding systematic study? a. It analyzes relationships based on previous experiences. b. It involves analyzing relationships based on scientific data. c. It involves taking action based on instinct. d. It attributes causes and effects based on intuition. e. It involves supporting decisions based on gut feelings. 7. ________ refers to the heterogeneity of organizations in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups. a. Cultural similarity b. Workforce diversity c. Organizational congruity d. Workforce associability e. Operational homogeneity 8. Which of the following terms best describes organizations that allow people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart? a. hierarchical organizations b. networked organizations c. flat organizations d. matrix organizations e. stable organizations 9. Which of the following is the major challenge for managers in a fully networked organization? a. retaining team members who can easily move to another employer when demand for their services changes. b. managing people who work together but are geographically separated. c. managing contract and temporary workers. d. maintaining a “virtual office” through the use of computers, interoffice networks, and the internet. e. eliminating the need for paper communication by relying entirely on e-mail, file transfers, and the like. 10. ________ diversity refers to diversity with respect to attributes that are less easy to observe initially but that can be inferred after more direct experience. a. Additive b. Demographic c. Deep-level d. Surface-level e. Conjunctive 11. Which of the following is the best example of mockery as a tool of discriminatory treatment in organizations? a. Because she is considerably older than the rest of her team, Hannah’s colleagues often do not invite her to team lunches or informal team get-togethers. b. Rifka’s supervisor often stereotypes Rifka because of her ethnic heritage and makes jokes about her ethnicity. c. Most of Leanne’s co-workers are male and share inappropriate jokes at the office. d. Joan’s boss sets impossible targets and reprimands her in front of her colleagues if she fails to complete them on time. e. Sheena is the only African-American employee in her department and often feels left out of office jokes and gossip. 12. A person who is made fun of because he is an Arab-American is being subjected to ________, a kind of discrimination in work environments. a. monomania b. gaslighting c. mockery d. vandalism e. cyberstalking 13. Which of the following explains why the relationship between age and job performance is likely to be of increasing importance during the next decade? a. A decline in immigration has opened up more entry-level positions for older workers. b. Increasing job opportunities are opening up in the domestic sector, resulting in a dearth of employees. c. A majority of people believe that productivity rises as a person grows older. d. The workforce is shrinking and older workers are compelled to work beyond retirement. e. U.S. legislation, in effect, outlaws mandatory retirement. 14. Green Planet, an environmental organization, recently opened an office in Indonesia. The organization is currently looking for employees to staff a deforestation project in the country. They need to recruit individuals who understand the intricacies of Jakarta’s culture, the mindset of the locals, and are fluent in the local language. Which of the following are they most likely to consider while they recruit for these positions? a. age b. race c. gender d. beliefs e. length of service 15. ________ refers to the ability to exert force against external objects. a. Extent flexibility b. Body coordination c. Static strength d. Dynamic flexibility e. Cognitive ability 16. Which of the following best describes the physical ability known as dynamic strength? a. the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts. b. the ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance. c. the ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body. d. the ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time. e. the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible. 17. The physical ability that allows a body to maintain equilibrium despite opposing forces is known as ________. a. static strength b. extent flexibility c. balance d. stamina e. body coordination 18. The physical ability that allows a body to continue maximum effort at maintaining prolonged effort over time is known as ________. a. extent flexibility b. balance c. stamina d. body coordination e. static strength 19. The theory of cognitive dissonance was proposed by ________. a. Geert Hofstede b. Leon Festinger c. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov d. Abraham Maslow e. Daryl Bem 20. Anna Jonas owns a manufacturing firm in Indonesia and strongly believes that it is important that workers’ rights be respected. However, because of the recent economic meltdown, she makes the management pay workers a wage which is below ethical standards. In addition, the working conditions are below standards because of low investment in safety equipment. She knows her actions are unethical but continues to do so to avoid major losses. Anna is most likely to be experiencing ________. a. positivity offset b. ethical evasion c. cognitive dissonance d. self-concordance e. emotional contagion 21. Which of the following is most likely to be related to reduced absences and lower resignation rates? a. high cognitive dissonance b. high emotional contagion c. low organizational commitment d. low psychological empowerment e. high job involvement 22. ________ refers to a positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. a. Picketing b. Job satisfaction c. Positivity offset d. Constructive dismissal e. Job design 23. In her work in the publishing industry, Vera Loranzo seeks out new authors who she considers promising. In the past two years, she has found a number of new writers whose work she thought was exceptional and immersed herself in the task of helping them shape their manuscripts for submission to her managers for publishing. Although she was extremely proud of the results, none of the authors she worked with were chosen for publication. After learning about her management’s decision, she is extremely frustrated and is beginning to resent the job she does. However, she knows there is nothing she can do and continues working because of the good perks and salary benefits the job offers. How can Loranzo’s job attitude be best described? a. low job satisfaction b. high psychological empowerment c. high positivity offset d. low job involvement e. low emotional contagion 24. Employees with positive core self-evaluations believe in their inner worth and basic competence and are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core self-evaluations. The concept of positive core self-evaluations indicates that ________. a. job conditions have a direct influence on job satisfaction b. employees should be regularly monitored and provided with feedback c. promotions and growth opportunities influence job satisfaction d. pay always has a direct correlation with job satisfaction e. personality plays a role in job satisfaction 25. Which of the following is a type of response to dissatisfaction that is constructive and passive? a. loyalty b. neglect c. voice d. exit e. reflect 26. The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework expands employee response to include voice and loyalty—constructive behaviors that allow individuals to ________. a. decrease emotional contagion b. reject unionization and focus on team-building activities c. tolerate unpleasant situations or revive satisfactory working conditions d. identify psychologically with their jobs e. revolt against the management 27. ________ refers to feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. a. Thought b. Reaction c. Affect d. Cognition e. Mood 28. Which of the following statements is true regarding negotiation? a. Angry negotiators who have less power than opponants have better outcomes. b. Displaying a negative emotion at a negotiation can never be effective. c. Individuals who do poorly in a negotiation develop positive perceptions of their counterpart. d. Feeling bad about your performance during a negotiation tends to impair future negotiations. e. Individuals who do poorly in a negotiation are more willing to be cooperative in future negotiations. 29. Which of the following is an example of deviant workplace behavior? a. taking blame for not achieving a deadline b. putting forward one’s views in a brainstorming session c. requesting a two-day leave during the Christmas season d. working during the weekend to make up for backlog e. sabotaging one’s organization’s computers 30. Which of the following terms refers to the practice of hiding inner feelings and foregoing emotional expressions in response to display rules? a. surface acting b. active camouflage c. anchoring bias d. framing effect e. bandwagon effect 31. Which of the following terms refers to a person’s ability to detect and to manage emotional cues and information? a. self-concordance b. cognitive dissonance c. emotional spectrum d. illusory correlation e. emotional intelligence 32. Green Earth, an environmental organization in Oklahoma, recently recruited Phyllis Galvan as a project coordinator. Galvan’s manager has noticed that ever since she has joined, she has been extremely positive about her work and takes up challenges without complaining. In addition, she maintains a positive ambience by helping out colleagues and smiling at everyone she interacts with. Her behavior has had a positive effect on her colleagues, who have started behaving in a similar manner. Which of the following concepts is demonstrated in this example? a. unit bias b. emotional contagion c. Ben Franklin effect d. anchoring effect e. emotional dissonance 33. Which of the following are characteristics of the intuitive type of people according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification? a. outgoing, sociable, and assertive in nature b. use reason, rationality, and logic to handle problems and situations c. rely on their personal values and emotions to make decisions d. prefer routine and order and focus on details e. rely on unconscious processes and look at the overall picture 34. What does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification of S versus N stand for? a. stable/negligent b. social/perceiving c. shrewd/feeling d. sympathetic/thinking e. sensing/intuitive 35. Which dimension of the Big Five model is a measure of reliability? a. agreeableness b. emotional stability c. conscientiousness d. extraversion e. openness to experience 36. Which of the following statements is true about people with positive core self-evaluations? a. They tend to be disliked by superiors and co-workers. b. They tend to question their capabilities and capacities. c. They are committed to their goals and set ambitious goals. d. They lack persistence to achieve goals. e. They view themselves as powerless over their environment. 37. According to Milton Rokeach, ________ values refer to preferable modes of behavior. a. terminal b. essential c. critical d. instrumental e. flexible 38. Which of the following is a terminal value according to Rokeach? a. social recognition b. self-improvement c. goal-orientation d. self-reliance e. personal discipline 39. According to the attribution theory, ________ is one the three main factors which attempt to determine an individual’s behavior. a. timorousness b. resilience c. distinctiveness d. perverseness e. flexibleness 40. If a person responds to a particular situation in the same way over a long time period, then the attribution theory states that the behavior demonstrates ________. a. distinctiveness b. consensus c. discontinuity d. consistency e. traceability 41. The tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgements is known as a(n) ________ bias. a. impact b. anchoring c. distinction d. confirmation e. omission 42. A manager believes that he should not hire older workers because they can’t learn new skills. This belief is an example of ________. a. a confirmation bias b. stereotyping c. an anchoring bias d. a fundamental attribution error e. a self-serving bias 43. Sarah Covington, a sales manager at Synergy Corporation Bank, often keeps low expectations of her team. She feels that they are underqualified for their job and do not have substantial experience to sell a large number of accounts. Covington’s team does not feel motivated enough and invariably underperforms and misses targets on a regular basis. Which of the following concepts best explains the team’s poor performance? a. confirmation bias b. contrast effect c. hindsight bias d. self-fulfilling prophecy e. bandwagon effect 44. The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome is known as a(n) ________ bias . a. hindsight b. anchoring c. confirmation d. self-serving e. impact 45. If Alberta is a categorized as a Theory X manager, which of the following behaviors is she most likely to exhibit? a. She will let her employees choose their own goals. b. She will strictly control all the details of any project she is managing. c. She will trust her employees to use their discretion in most matters. d. She will empower her subordinates. e. She will delegate authority extensively to junior managers. 46. According to goal-setting theory, goals are more likely to have a stronger impact on performance when ________. a. tasks are complex rather than simple b. tasks are novel rather than well learned c. goals have long time frames for completion d. tasks are independent rather than interdependent e. goals are easy rather than difficult 47. MBO emphasizes goals that are ________. a. tangible, verifiable, and measurable b. tangible, rewarding, and assigned c. achievable, controllable, and profitable d. profitable, attainable, and self-set e. inspirational, verifiable, and creative 48. ________ argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want. a. Theory X b. Theory Y c. Operant conditioning theory d. Social cognitive theory e. McClelland’s theory of needs 49. Edith believes that the methods for determining salary hikes and bonuses in her company are extremely unfair. In this case, Edith perceives a lack of ________ justice. a. procedural b. associative c. interactional d. distributive e. interpersonal 50. Logan is an employee who processes health insurance forms. Initially he was criticized by his supervisor for sloppy work, but thereafter he improved considerably. Now he consistently processes his forms without errors and even does more than his fair share of work. However, Logan’s supervisor has not responded to the extra effort he has put in, giving him no praise or monetary benefits. This leads Logan to believe that his supervisor is biased against him. According to the expectancy theory, in this situation, there is a problem in the ________ relationship. a. performance-reward b. performance-achievement c. performance-awareness d. performance-objectives e. rewards-personal goals 51. Managers at Flavors, a restaurant chain, train their employees such that in the absence of employees someone else trained in the same skills can step in and do the job equally well. Thus, many modules in training are extensive as they provide employees with details of the skill sets required for different jobs. In practice, this lengthy training program helps the company as a well-trained and flexible workforce is at their disposal at all times. The managers at Flavors use ________. a. flextime b. vertical enhancement c. job rotation d. job sharing e. telecommuting 52. An arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job is called ________. a. flextime b. job sharing c. job rotation d. telecommuting e. gainsharing 53. After the training and development manager at Add Worth, Nicole Hayes, resigned, the CEO has made it a priority that the position be filled soon by someone of equal expertise and experience. To locate the right candidate, Jennifer Ray, the HR manager, has been contacting recruitment firms, checking job sites, and pushing for referrals from the employees. However, she has only found candidates with little or no experience in the field who were willing to work full time for the position. At the next meeting with the CEO, Jennifer proposes an alternative strategy; she suggests hiring two experienced candidates who are open to the idea of handling the training needs on a part-time basis as a team. The CEO listens to her proposal but is not too convinced by it. Which of the following, if true, would strengthen Jennifer’s proposal to use job sharing for the vacant position? a. A good proportion of the company’s prized workforce comprises employees from the baby boomer generation who are set to retire in the impending future. b. Trainers are exempted from the requirement of being at the office throughout the common core period of the workday. c. The employees of the company on the work council have planned to demand the flextime option. d. A rival firm recently adopted telecommuting to reduce administrative costs cutting into its bottom line. e. The headhunting firms that Jennifer contacted are usually helpful in generating a good pool of potential candidates. 54. For employee stock ownership plans to be effective in improving performance, they must ________. a. be planned such that they are unaffected by company profitability b. be based on the market compensation philosophy c. be based solely on productivity like gainsharing plans d. be implemented such that employees psychologically experience ownership e. be determined on the basis of performance appraisals and recent performance 55. Which of the following statements is true regarding employee recognition? a. Employee stock option is a more powerful workplace motivator than recognition. b. Employee recognition programs are expensive. c. Critics argue that employee recognition programs are highly susceptible to political manipulation by management. d. Employee recognition is an extrinsic reward. e. Centralized programs across multiple offices in different countries can hinder the process of employee recognition programs. 56. Which of the following is true regarding formal groups? a. They lack clearly defined structures and roles for their members. b. They are natural formations that arise in response to the need for social contact. c. They have negligible impact on employee performance and behavior. d. They are marked by stipulated behaviors in pursuit of organizational goals. e. A group of people who come together to protest against a new law make up a formal group. 57. Similarity is a characteristic under the social identity theory that manifests itself in the ________. a. tendency of people to link themselves to high-status groups in an attempt to define themselves favorably b. tendency of people to use the group as a means of understanding who they are and how they fit into the world c. tendency of ingroup members to prefer and endorse the products, ideas, and aspects of someone else’s culture over their own d. tendency of ingroup members to notice and emphasize identities that reflect how different they are from other groups e. tendency of people who have greater uniformity in values and characteristics to have greater group identification as well 58. Which of the following statements is true with regard to the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development? a. It characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes. b. It involves the two strategies of groupthink and groupshift to break out of the phases of inertia. c. It does not consider the changes in patterns of group activities in response to deadlines and time constraints. d. It applies to all permanent work groups. e. It follows the five stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. 59. Which of the following is true with regard to social loafing? a. Social loafing decreases when rewards are added for collective performance of the group. b. Social loafing is a result of the emphasis on individual outcomes over shared outcomes. c. Social loafing involves the cumulative rise in productivity when teams increase in size. d. Social loafing is witnessed less in collectivist cultures where people take pride in group performance. e. Social loafing reflects the drastic rise in employee performance when employees work collectively. 60. When ________ is of importance in decision making, group decisions are preferred to individual decisions. a. acceptance of solution b. speed c. efficiency d. legitimacy e. clear responsibility 61. People scoring high on ________ are valuable in teams because they’re good at backing up fellow team members and at sensing when their support is truly needed. a. agreeableness b. conscientiousness c. emotional stability d. positivity e. openness to experience 62. While discussing their marketing campaign for a new product, the members of the cross-functional team responsible for Carver Inc. realized that a couple of changes relating to their prior plan would be beneficial. The offer of a franchising that had earlier been brushed off by the company head was discussed thoroughly, and it was decided that it would be implemented on a trial basis initially and on full scale if found to work well. From the information provided, it can be concluded that this cross-functional team has a high degree of ________. a. uncertainty b. conformity c. diversity d. reflexivity e. demography 63. ________ are defined as organized mental representations of the key elements within a team’s environment that team members share. a. Mental models b. Path-goal models c. Individual models d. Task models e. Specific models 64. When teams are performing nonroutine activities, ________ stimulate discussion, promote critical assessment of problems and options, and can lead to better team decisions. a. relationship conflicts b. disciplinary conflicts c. discriminatory conflicts d. task conflicts e. resource allocation conflicts 65. Work should be performed by an individual if: a. the work creates a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals b. several tasks that are interdependent are to be performed for completing the work c. the work is simple and does not require diverse input d. performing the work requires learning a new technology or understanding a new system e. the work is complex and requires different perspectives 66. Communication that flows to a higher level in the group or organization is called ________. a. intrapersonal communication b. upward communication c. horizontal communication d. lateral communication e. downward communication 67. Which of the following is an example of upward communication? a. The heads of the different departments of Carver Inc. have met to discuss their plans for the coming year. b. The assembly line workers have conducted a signature campaign asking for the revision of the old pay scales. c. The management has recently given a copy of the new safety policies that the employees must abide by in their daily work. d. Sherry is holding a project initiation meeting with her team to familiarize them with the guidelines and requirements. e. Jennifer has just received an outstanding performance rating as a part of the yearly appraisals. 68. When you need to gauge the receptivity of a recipient, which type of communication is best? a. e-mail b. traditional letters c. oral communication d. social media e. Twitter 69. When receivers of communication process the information based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics, they are engaging in ________. a. communication apprehension b. filtering c. controlled processing d. deliberative processing e. selective perception 70. Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both is called ________. a. information overload b. filtering c. communication misrepresentation d. selective perception e. communication apprehension 71. Nellie Fritz, the head of client support services at Olson Inc., is very popular among her subordinates. Many believe that Nellie has a knack for getting the work done without making the employees feel pushed into a corner. She is often seen speaking to her subordinates and support staff about their families, helping them with any personal problems they have, and praising employees for their good work. In light of the Ohio State Studies, this indicates that Nellie, as a leader, is ________. a. production oriented b. low in relationship orientation c. low in trust propensity d. high in consideration e. task oriented 72. George has been a project leader at NSys for five years. George’s job description involves scheduling work for his team, coordinating their work with that of the other departments, and providing feedback. George, who has successfully led this team, believes that it is his task-oriented and directive approach that has helped him in the last five years. Which of the following, if true, would weaken his argument supporting a directive leadership? a. George has seen that employees in his team lack initiative and motivation to work hard. b. The team’s workload is expected to rise substantially as the company is growing at an unprecedented rate. c. George’s team is organized as a wheel network and depends on his ability to coordinate amongst members of the team and between other departments. d. NSys hires only highly qualified and experienced employees. e. The members of the team are resentful with George’s directives relating to work. 73. Which of the following is true about substitutes for leadership? a. Substitutes are factors and conditions that replace formal leadership. b. Substitutes are clearly distinguishable from neutralizers. c. Substitutes enhance the need for leader’s support or ability to create structure. d. Substitutes increase the levels of identification-based trust. e. Organizations cannot provide any substitutes for leadership. 74. According to the LMX theory, a leader implicitly categorizes followers as “in” or “out” ________. a. after careful performance analysis b. only after several months of working together c. early in the interaction d. because of political pressure e. on a temporary basis 75. In terms of the full range of leadership models, which leadership behavior represents the most active and effective approach for leaders? a. idealized influence b. contingent reward c. individualized consideration d. laissez-faire e. management by exception (active) 76. Which of the following statements is true regarding power? a. A is said to have power over B if B controls something that A desires. b. A can have power over B only when A and B have similar goals. c. If A has the capacity to influence the behavior of B, then A is said to have power over B. d. The greater A’s dependence on B, the greater A’s power in the relationship. e. A can have power over B only if A is B’s leader. 77. Which of the following statements is true regarding legitimate power? a. Legitimate power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics. b. Legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce and reward. c. Legitimate power is a type of personal power. d. Celebrities who endorse products in commercials wield legitimate power over people. e. Legitimate power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. 78. ________ power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. a. Referent b. Reward c. Coercive d. Legitimate e. Expert 79. Which of the following is a self-focused impression management technique? a. excuses b. flattery c. enhancement d. conformity e. apologies 80. Which of the following is an assertive impression management technique? a. self-promotion b. apologies c. conformity d. flattery e. buffing 81. Which of the following conflict-handling intentions involves accepting a solution that provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties’ concerns? a. collaborating b. compromising c. accommodating d. competing e. avoiding 82. In case of distributive bargaining, the ________ point marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable—the point below which the party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement. a. target b. resistance c. distribution d. focal e. tolerance Labor and management at Leo Trucking cannot seem to agree upon a contract for the truck drivers. As each side contends that they are bargaining fairly, no agreement seems to be possible. The drivers are threatening to go on strike, and management knows that such a strike would prove to be costly. 83. None of the parties involved in the dispute wants to reach a win-win agreement. They are each highly focused on their demands, which they would like to achieve, otherwise known as their ________ points. a. focal b. target c. distribution d. resistance e. tolerance 84. During which phase of the negotiation process do the parties have the actual discussion to hash out an agreement? a. integration of preferences b. bargaining and problem-solving c. preparation and planning d. closure and implementation e. definition of ground rules 85. Which of the following is a drawback of a narrow span of control? a. It increases participatory decision making. b. It is more expensive. c. It encourages employee autonomy. d. It increases effectiveness. e. It decreases the number levels in the organizational hierarchy. 86. In an organization, top managers make all the decisions and lower-level managers merely carry out their directives. This organization is most likely to be characterized by ________. a. a high degree of departmentalization b. a narrower span of control c. a high degree of centralization d. a low degree of work specialization e. a low degree of formalization 87. A boundaryless organization is most likely to ________. a. discourage participative decision-making practices b. encourage hierarchical structure c. replace empowered teams with departments d. use 360-degree performance appraisals e. avoid using cross-hierarchical teams 88. Which of the following dimensions of an environment describes the degree to which the environment can support growth? a. complexity b. flexibility c. capacity d. sustainability e. volatility 89. A culture that expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members is known as a(n) ________ culture. a. fundamental b. dominant c. primary d. essential e. unique 90. ________ is a process that helps new employees adapt to the prevailing organizational culture. a. Social loafing b. Satisficing c. Socialization d. Formalization e. Reciprocal interdependence 91. The process of socialization consists of three stages. Which of the following is one of these three stages? a. metamorphosis b. evaluation c. preencounter d. post-arrival e. post-encounter You are new to an organization and do not really know what to expect about the socialization process. You recently received your MBA and have an undergraduate degree in computer science. Your new firm is a software development company with an emphasis in the healthcare industry. Your hiring process included campus interviews, a daylong trip for an interview at the company, an offer phone call and letter, and some promotional material sent via the mail. When you arrive for your first day at work, you spend half a day in an orientation session that is conducted by the human resources department, where you complete paperwork and receive a company handbook. Then you spend the rest of the day with your supervisor, who gives you a tour, introduces you to your co-workers, and explains your first project. After that, you begin working and getting to know the others in the company. You find that in most respects, your experience fits your expectations, but in some ways you are surprised by realities that you hadn’t expected. None of these surprises is too difficult to accept, so you eventually begin to feel at home and happy with your new job. 92. Your first day at work is a part of the ________ stage of socialization. a. prearrival b. encounter c. metamorphosis d. post-encounter e. orientation 93. Applicants describe how they handled specific problems and situations in previous jobs in a(n) ________ interview. a. performance-simulation b. problem-solving c. audition-type d. behavioral structured e. reflection Sirius Corp, an automobile manufacturer in Texas, has a number of vacancies at lower management levels, which is important for the company’s future development, and wants to fill the positions from within the company itself rather than recruit externally. The company plans to e-mail the job specifications to all employees and post the jobs on the company web site. 94. Which of the following, if true, will strengthen the company’s decision? a. The majority of the company employees have only a basic level of education. b. A majority of the company’s employees are reaching the age of retirement. c. The company recently instituted a technical skills improvement program for shop floor employees. d. A top recruitment agency recently sent the company details of prospective college candidates. e. Several top performing entry level employees have received offers from rival companies. 95. Which of the following is the least predictive set of criteria used to evaluate employees? a. behaviors b. traits c. technical skills d. personality e. task outcomes 96. Which of the following methods of performance evaluation allows for quantitative analysis and comparison? a. group order ranking b. written essay c. critical incident d. graphic rating scale e. assessment center evaluation 97. A paper sales company designs and offers a new method of purchasing and shipping commerical quantities of paper through its website. The company used to do its business through its sales representative. This is an example of a(n) _________ change. a. planned b. accidental c. secondary d. integrated e. cognitive 98. Which of the following types of changes involves a new idea being applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service? a. double-loop learning b. organizational streaming c. continuous improvement d. innovation e. process reengineering 99. Bart has a new idea for a way to cut costs in his department, but he is not willing to share his idea with his boss because the last department head that tried new cost cutting methods was recently fired because the new methods could not achieve expected results. Based on the example, how can Bart’s company improve the culture to create innovation? a. increase the resources in Bart’s department b. encourage communication between various departments c. conduct team-building activities d. reward both successes and failures e. flatten the organizational structure 100.Rudolph is dealing with impending layoffs at work. Yesterday, at a pharmacy, he measured his blood pressure and it was high. He also noticed that when he thinks about the future, his heart rat accelerates. Rudolf is demonstrating __________ symptoms of stress. a. reactive b. physiological c. psychological d. personal e. behavioral